When I was in high school, I took languages (German, English) as my major classes. Reading, interpreting and writing about literature, i.e. books, became a daunting task. And to be honest with you, I don’t recall much from the Shakespeare’s and other legends of past centuries. But there was one book which I still remember.
Perhaps you have heard about Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and one of the most famous books in German literature: Faust: A Tragedy. In this book, Goethe describes the restless pursuit of knowledge and the never-satisfied desires of a person who is dissatisfied with his life. In order to satisfy his need for knowledge and pleasure, Faust dedicated himself to the devil and to the life (and love) of a person.
With the ever increasing rate of innovation in information technology, many of us have a desire to continuously learn and grow, seeking for answers to small and big questions, like Dr. Faust. Reflecting on myself, this part of a monologue by Faust became a theme throughout my whole career (and still is).
„To enlighten me more, What holds the world together at its innermost core“
(Faust, J. W. Goethe)
Whenever I am confronted with a complex problem space or piece of technology, I try to distill it to its essence, its core. What are the building blocks (atomic units)? How are they assembled to form a more complex structure? What are the decisions and tradeoffs the architects had to make? How did these influence the overall design?
Not only does this help me to better understand whether and how to optimally use a certain technology. I also became a better software engineer, standing on the many shoulders of the giants in our industry.
Since my early days with Kubernetes, my inner Dr. Faust pushed me to learn more about the core concepts, e.g. how the (many) autonomous and stateless controllers (control loops) react to state changes (events) without a central orchestrator. I wrote a couple of blog posts1 2 and gave presentations3, to answer the same questions many of you also had, doing my best to educate and grow our great community.
Even though over time I developed a good understanding and mental model on the
Kubernetes architecture, I still had the feeling to not fully grok certain
details how these events are generated, propagated and reliably consumed
throughout the various Kubernetes components and actors. The
interface in the
client-go SDK, used in all Go-based Kubernetes controllers,
plays a critical role here:
It all started with a simple question: how does
ListerWatcher work? As you see from
this series, it turned out to be another journey into a fascinating and deep
For example, is there a canonical definition of a state change event4 in
Kubernetes? How is the level-triggered state change notification implemented?
Why do I always get
ADDED events from an initial
kubectl or controller
WATCH, when the object’s last state is actually
MODIFIED? How is the
resourceVersion, which is critical for optimistic concurrency control5 in
such an asynchronous system, generated? And if it’s so important, why is
resourceVersion not explicitly persisted in the persistence layer
etcd, how is the Kubernetes object registry physically
represented? What is a “flat binary key
space” (to quote from the
docs) anyways? And what’s the difference between a compaction and
defragmentation operation related to
Lastly, how does an end-to-end event notification
WATCH stream work under the
covers, e.g. when using
controller-runtime (kubebuilder)? How
can a collection6 (“LIST”) have a
resourceVersion, if the latter is based
on individual object-level changes? What are all these
used for in the controller SDKs? And why don’t we see
events anymore in the
Reconcile() handler of controller-runtime?
The list goes on…in fact, it looks like I am not the only one with these questions 😄
"The system is level-based rather than edge-triggered, and should assume an Open World."— Darren Shepherd (@ibuildthecloud) September 23, 2020
These terms are thrown around in k8s docs like they are common place terms. So if you have to stop and think (google) everytime you see this, know you're not alone. I get lost too.
To be fair, some of these questions are answered in various blogs, talks and the official Kubernetes documentation7. To keep the documentation concise, implementation details or parts which are not relevant for all personas, are left out though. Sometimes, the information is partially repeated or spread over different pages and Git repositories, making it hard to get a complete picture of how all the pieces fit together.
So Dr. Faust, err I, decided to describe the end-to-end flow of the event
notification mechanism in Kubernetes, also known as the
in the controller
Initially I wanted to start at the client (controller) layer. But I quickly
realized, that in order to understand certain concepts, like
a fundamental understanding of the Kubernetes data model is required. Or more
specifically, how resource objects are persisted in and projected from the database (
Thus, we will work us backwards through this rabbit hole, starting with
etcd in the
first part of this series. Our journey starts here…
Part 1: Onwards to the Core: etcd
Part 2: Source of Truth: The API Server
Part 3: Informers, Controllers, Reconciliation…oh my
“Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it. Begin it now."
(John Anster, inspired by Goethe’s Faust)
As a final note, I cannot thank the creators and community enough for how much I learned from the Kubernetes system architecture. 🙏 🙏 🙏
A LIST is returned from GET operations on collections, e.g.
kubectl get pods↩︎
The Life of a Kubernetes Watch Event is a great talk describing the end-to-end WATCH flow. But since Kubecon talks are time-constrained, the presenters had to omit certain details which I wanted to explore deeper. ↩︎